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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 479-485

Dietary risk factors for colorectal cancer: A hospital-based case–control study

1 Department of Community Medicine, GMC, Jammu, India
2 Department of Medical Oncology, American Oncology Institute, ASCOMS, Jammu, India
3 Department of Radiotherapy, GMC, Jammu, India

Correspondence Address:
Shabab Angurana
Department of Radiotherapy, GMC, Jammu, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/crst.crst_116_21

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Background: Establishing a link between diet and cancer is an epidemiological challenge, and such relationships have not been thoroughly investigated. Objectives: We aimed to explore the presence of a possible relationship between diet and colorectal cancer. Material and Methods: This case–control study was conducted at the Government Medical College, Jammu, a regional cancer center in Jammu and Kashmir in North India. We collected the dietary information from 1 year prior to the date of diagnosis for a total of 100 patients with colorectal cancer, 100 hospital controls, and 100 healthy controls. Data were collected by administering the food frequency questionnaire as a part of a personal interview. Data were analyzed using the Chi-squared test, and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: The risk of colorectal cancer among men who consumed alcohol was greater than that among the healthy controls (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.27–5.31). Similarly, risk was greater among those who consumed hot tea (OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 0.99–3.31). The odds of developing colorectal cancer were 4–19 times higher with the consumption of red meat, while of consumption of fruits, vegetables, wheat and pulses with rice once a day conferred significant protection to participants in both the control groups. Consumption of dairy products and ghee also seemed to confer protection against colorectal cancer, ranging from 39% to 95% and 77% to 85%, respectively. The odds of consumption of pickled foods were significantly higher among those with colorectal cancer as compared to the healthy controls (OR: 2.0–3.63). Conclusions: The consumption of certain foods and beverages such as alcohol, hot tea, red meat, and pickles is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Thus, our results suggest that the risk of developing colorectal cancer is associated with dietary habits and that effective prevention is possible.

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